B.C. Askins

The Man With the Golden Gun

Archive for the month “March, 2014”

The Noah Movie: An Apologia

Darren Aronofsky’s film Noah has stirred up quite the storm of strong criticism and counter-criticism from various evangelical Christian reviewers. As one Gospel Coalition reviewer astutely noted, “Not surprisingly, many Christians have been harshly critical because the film is insufficiently faithful to the biblical source. And also not surprisingly, many others have over-praised the film, I think, more as a counter-reaction to the responses of their fellow Christians than to anything they found on the screen.”

I will attempt to “walk between the raindrops,” so to speak, in this brief review.

There are a host of easy targets for criticism in the film, such as the anachrony of including Tubal-Cain or the insertion of the half-baked-yet-somehow-overcooked fallen angels (the “Watchers”) or the producers’ environmentalistic emphasis. However, the strongest criticisms have been reserved for the portrayal of Noah himself. As Al Mohler put it in his review, “Aronofsky introduces Noah as a kind and caring family man, but his divine assignment turns the movie’s Noah into a sociopathic monster. At this point the movie veers into a radical distortion of the biblical account. Noah is now depicted as a madman ready to murder his own grandchildren in order to end humanity and rid creation of the human threat… This not only misses the point of the Genesis narrative, it corrupts it. Aronofsky is telling a truly fascinating story in these segments of the film, but it is not the story of Noah as found in the Bible. Totally missing from the movie is the understanding that God is simultaneously judging and saving, ready to make a covenant with Noah that will turn the biblical narrative toward Abraham and the founding of Israel.”

I have nothing but respect for Dr. Mohler and while I completely agree with him that this portrayal of Noah is a distortion of biblical history, I also must disagree with his final assessment. The understanding that God is simultaneously judging and saving is not “totally missing” from the film – it just appears that Dr. Mohler is totally missing the point of this particular depiction of Noah.

Despite their love and care for life of all kinds, Noah recognizes that he and his family have the same nature and commit the same sins as the people whom God will destroy in the flood. If God is destroying all sinners, why should Noah and his family be spared? At a superficial level, Noah’s anti-natalism is a logical conclusion from the premises of his particular stripe of environmentalism. People harm and ruin creation (including each other), so the only way to save creation is to destroy all people.

But, at a more significant level of the story, the filmmakers are producing a theodicy. God destroyed the world, killing (nearly) everyone because they are sinners and we are amused by the special effects. Noah vows to kill his grandchildren because they are sinners and we become sickened and call him a “sociopathic monster.” But Noah’s opposition to human life mimics God’s opposition to human life – it’s anthropomorphism.

At the climax of the film, Noah stands with his knife hovering over his newborn grandchildren, ready to kill them. The dramatic tension builds – everybody familiar with the story knows this wasn’t in the Bible, so nobody knows what this fictional Noah will do. And he relents. He throws the knife into the ark and the babies live. When asked later why he chose not to kill the children, Noah responds, “When I looked down at them, all I had in my heart was love.” God’s electing love is the ultimate reason that his wrath was not poured out upon Noah and his family – depicted vividly, if imperfectly, by Noah’s mercy.

The filmmakers’ repeated emphasis on the lineages of Seth and Cain (the seed of the woman and the serpent, respectively [Genesis 3:15]) sets the table for this revelation of God’s electing love as the basis for mingling mercy with wrath – He looked down on his children and had nothing but love in his heart. The use of theological anthropomorphism is always a risky decision. God frequently used anthropormorphic language in his self-revelation in Scripture – and it is frequently misunderstood by interpreters. I suspect that many reviewers of Aronofsky’s Noah have misunderstood his use of anthropormorphism as well. I think once one recognizes this literary device at work in the film it helps to redeem what would otherwise be a confusing and troubling addition to the narrative of Noah and the flood.

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Book Review: Putting the Truth to Work by Daniel M. Doriani

Doriani, Daniel M. Putting the Truth to Work: The Theory and Practice of Biblical Application. Phillipsburg, P & R Publishing, 2001.

Introduction

Putting the Truth to Work is a helpful book which presents practical approaches and theoretical methods for developing faithful biblical applications in sermon preparation and delivery. The author provides an introduction to hermeneutics with an eye toward developing sermon applications. Once the groundwork has been laid, he then develops distinct plans for applying unique genres of Scripture in a Christocentric fashion.

Dr. Daniel M. Doriani was a professor of New Testament, Dean of the Faculty, and Vice President of Academics at Covenant Theological Seminary in Missouri from 1991 to 2003. He transitioned into the senior pastor role at Central Presbyterian Church (PCA), a 1700-member church in Clayton, Missouri. Last year, he returned to Covenant Theological Seminary as Vice President of Strategic Academic Projects and professor of theology. He has authored many books on a variety of subjects, including hermeneutics, homiletics, and some New Testament commentaries.

Summary

“If a teacher’s ultimate crime is to propound heresy, the penultimate crime is to make biblical truth sound boring” (121). This book is strong medicine for an epidemic of boring preaching. Putting the Truth to Work is written in two sections, divided by a brief interlude. The first section of the book focuses on the nature, sources, and methods of discerning biblical applications. The second section gives plans for applying narrative, doctrinal, and ethical texts, considers issues with applying these texts Christocentrically, and concludes with a method for selecting a sermon text.

The initial chapter dialectically considers three proposed theories for interpretation and application. The thesis is the traditional view that exegesis precedes application in a two-step process, so that application rests upon exegesis. The antithesis theory proposes to erase the distinction between meaning and application, since “Scripture itself links interpretation with relevance” (20). On this view, exegesis is inextricably linked to application, such that meaning is application. Finally, the author proposes a synthesis of these two theories as “a permeable barrier between exegesis and application” (22). This “fuzzy boundary” maintains the primacy of exegesis in the applicative task, but also acknowledges the interdependent relationship between meaning and application. The author then argues that a theory of application is both necessary and desirable, and that a consideration of the communicative context is also essential to the nature of sermon application.

The second chapter develops a God-centered theology of application, using Scripture’s own use of Scripture, particularly Jesus’ use of Scripture in the Gospels, as an exemplar. Jesus’ example gives us insight into the proper use and the misuse of the Bible in application. Christ demonstrates what Paul later asserts in 2 Tim 3:16-17, that all Scripture is profitable.

The following chapter is dedicated to a discussion of the role of the interpreter in the interpretive and applicative tasks. The author outlines a general model for application which displays the various interrelations between the text, the interpreter, and the audience. Doriani then examines the different perspectives on reading a text, the relationship between knowledge and action, and the hermeneutical spiral—all within a discussion of the courage, character, and credibility necessary to faithful biblical application. This chapter is simply brilliant.

The fourth chapter discusses the seven biblical sources of application: rules, ideals, doctrine, redemptive acts in narrative, exemplary acts in narrative, biblical images or symbols, and, finally, songs and prayers. The author highlights that this list is not co-extensive with the genres of literature found in Scripture, though there is significant overlap. A rubric is also provided for discerning twenty-eight options for the relevance of a text.

Then the next chapter gives four aspects of application for consideration. These are four categories of questions which should be highlighted for the audience in the development of applications. The preacher should consider questions about duty, character, goals, and discernment for the audience. These four categories of questions combined with the seven sources from the previous chapter form the rubric of twenty-eight relevant applications for a given text. The tendency of many evangelical preachers is to ask duty-related questions, to the detriment or disuse of character, goal, and discernment-related questions. The author suggests “going beyond law” (98) is crucial to faithful biblical application.

The final chapter of the first section further considers the use of the four categories from the preceding chapter. The author considers the misuse and the proper use of each of the categories of questions, and also provides a two-page critique of utilitarianism in preaching.

After an interlude which briefly reminds the reader about the importance of proper interpretation and understanding contexts (biblical and homiletical), the second section of the book begins with a plan for applying narrative texts. The types of narrative (drama, reports, speech stories) are surveyed and the components of dramatic analysis are rehearsed. The remainder of the chapter gives specific examples of narrative analysis from the Old Testament, the Gospels, and Acts. The following chapter gives six theses to correct certain misbegotten theories on interpreting and applying narrative texts.

Chapter nine gives a plan for the application of doctrinal passages by proposing “a check list for preachers” (225-6) and surveying several case studies in doctrinal sermon application.

The next chapter presents a plan for applying ethical texts. Biblical law can be applied identically, analogously, and typologically (241). Seven questions for “harder cases” are considered and then applied to two test cases from the Mosaic law. The subsequent chapter considers issues faced in applying ethical texts. The author suggests that the three uses of the law and the tripartite view of OT law are useful pedagogical and interpretive tools for the preacher, with some noteworthy caveats.
The twelfth chapter provides a review of the preceding chapters inasmuch as they were pertinent to a consideration of Christocentric preaching. The author presents Christocentric application as a way of bridging redemptive-historical and needs-sensitive preaching. The final chapter of the book concludes with general principles for sermon text selection.

Critical Evaluation

In evaluating Putting the Truth to Work two strengths and one weakness will be surveyed and discussed, respectively. This evaluation will be followed by some concluding remarks which discuss the usefulness of this book.

Strengths

This book will provide many readers with valuable insights for developing biblically-faithful sermon applications. Two strengths of this book are: the “how-to” chapters in the book (7, 9, 10, 12) give useful questions, case studies, and action steps for improving sermon application, and the third chapter weaves together the intellect and character of the interpreter in a brilliant, biblically holistic fashion.

The “how-to” chapters in the book give useful questions, case studies, and action steps for improving sermon application. In the preface, the author highlights the “how-to” chapters as the “capstone” of the book, because they review the theoretical chapters while exemplifying how to compellingly present Christ to the audience (9). These chapters are the result of over two decades of academic ministry and nearly a decade-and-a-half of pastoral preaching ministry. It is difficult to overstate the significance of these chapters for a young, inexperienced preacher like this reviewer.

For example, Chapters Ten and Eleven function together as a strong corrective for moralistic/legalistic preaching, for merely redemptive-historical application, as well as the often oversimplified relationship between law and grace. One on side are preachers who struggle to find applications which are anything more than an injunction to “do better,” and on the other side are preachers who struggle to present applications which are anything more than an encouragement to “believe more.”

Doriani tells the former, “Not all Christians who want to obey know how to do it,” and the latter, “…however, sophisticated we are, there is a time to tell people what to do.” He continues, “If a theologian thinks people need metaphors and not mandates, he ought to get out more often” (263-4). These two chapters contain principles which can help set pastors free to preach the gospel as spiritually transformative in specific ways.

The third chapter weaves together the intellect and character of the interpreter in a brilliant, biblically holistic fashion. The third chapter of the book highlights several major theoretical issues in hermeneutics by considering the character and virtue needed to rightly resolve these issues and faithfully apply those resolutions. Many readers will find the practical chapters of the second section of the book to be worth their weight in gold; however, this theoretical chapter would be worth the price of the book, even if its cost was its weight in gold!

Theoretical texts on hermeneutics will often discuss the distinctions between a critical, dialogical, and submissive view of reading Scripture or present a particular perspective on the nature of the hermeneutical spiral. Homiletical texts will often discuss the importance of the biblical qualifications of eldership or the role of a preacher’s character in ministry. Doriani manages to weave theory and virtue together in a holistic manner that demonstrates how fluidly he is able to move between the ivory tower of academics and the concrete jungle of pastoral ministry. Readers will benefit greatly from his insights.

Weakness

Despite providing a host of insights on the nature and task of biblical application, this book also had some weaknesses. One weakness in this book was the inclusion of a critical analysis of Christopher Wright’s view of biblical law.

The inclusion of a critical analysis of Christopher Wright’s view of biblical law. As the author is concluding his evaluation of the relative merits and demerits of the classical tripartite view of the OT law as moral, civil, and ceremonial, he takes an aside to briefly discuss Christopher J. H. Wright’s five-part view of the OT law (273-5).

Wright seeks to situate his taxonomy of OT law (civil, family, cultic, criminal, and charitable) within its redemptive-historical epoch (creation, fall, redemption, new creation) in order to emphasize the unity of divine revelation while putting a finer point on the distinctions between various biblical laws. While this gives an interesting scholarly brief on a way of potentially improving upon the classical tripartite division of the OT law, there is very little payoff for the reader with regard to the thesis of the book and chapter—namely, the application of ethical texts.
The point of the analysis is that “all laws retain some form of authority,” (275) but this point is almost lost in the tangential discussion of Wright’s view after the lengthy pedagogical and apologetic discussion of the tripartite view. In the opinion of this reviewer, the point could be made more clearly and directly by foregoing the analysis of Wright’s view. Admittedly, this is a relatively minor editorial criticism.

Conclusion

Putting the Truth to Work is a book which this reviewer will return to in the future as a resource for developing biblical applications in a variety of creative but faithful ways. This book stands as a testimony to the reality that all Scripture is profitable and applicable. It also functions as a guide for how to discern those applications in practice. Faithful application of this book will result in faithful application of Scripture, to the glory of God.

Disney’s Frozen: A Fatherhood Reflection

Disney's FrozenSo there have been some recent articles written from a Christian perspective criticizing Disney’s movie Frozen. Apparently, “worldview analysis” is just a code word for a list of things in pop culture that Christians should and shouldn’t like. You can listen to a certain song just as long as you frown and shake your head during the relativistic refrain. And warn your children about the boogeyman, Moral Relativism.

Look, moral relativism isn’t an intellectual danger. It’s an experiential one. When a cartoon character sings, “No right, no wrong, no rules for me,” it is painfully obvious to anyone with a modicum of common sense that she is making a rule which is either right or wrong. It’s laughably self-refuting. Lamentably, we live in a society where that modicum of common sense is more elusive than a Chupacabra. But that doesn’t change the fact that it’s pretty easy to teach my children to see that relativism is self-refuting. Now if I could just teach them to share…

Moral relativism is just the sewage which many of the fish in our society have mistaken for fresh water. All they’ve ever swam in is sewage so they don’t know the difference. Take them out of the sewer and plop them in the river and they may gasp and flop for a bit, but eventually they catch on and swim along with the current. Sins (of all kinds) are the real issue; moral relativism is just the way some sinners convince each other that the stupid things they’re doing are actually intellectually defensible. It’s a defense mechanism against the conscience. It’s a symptom, not a disease. I’m not worried about my kids becoming moral relativists; I’m worried about them becoming unrepentant sinners.

So, that being said, rather than a passing nod to the self-sacrificial love shared between the sister-protagonists in the film and a jeremiad about a relativistic song lyric, I would hope for a more compelling analysis from Christian reviewers. People steeped in the richness and depth of the themes, types, symbols, and narrative of Scripture should be able to draw more value from such a film than even its creators realize is there.

For example, Queen Elsa’s freezing powers are a metaphorical extension of her emotions. There’s a dynamic of fear and love at work in her powers. When she’s afraid, she loses control — when she learns to love, she regains control. Now, my daughter will never build a frozen palace of isolation as a result of living in fear — but that’s exactly what her loneliness may feel like if I don’t teach her how “perfect love casts out fear.” (1 John 4:18)

In the movie, the young princesses are playing together and Elsa displays a natural control over her powers (read: emotions). She builds a winter wonderland to share with her sister, Ana, in one room of their castle, but she becomes afraid when her sister moves too quickly and accidentally strikes her sister in the head with an icy blast. Their parents, the king and queen, rush them off to see some magical trolls in the woods who fix Ana’s frozen mind and replace her memories of Elsa’s powers with fun memories of playing in the snow. The troll prophesies over Elsa that her powers (read: emotions) are both beautiful and dangerous, and that she must learn to control them or they could destroy her.

This is a reality that we all face, young ladies especially. Emotions are beautiful and dangerous aspects of human nature. It’s a beautiful emotional response when Ana sacrifices her life for her sister, and Elsa’s fear dangerously isolates her from everyone that she loves. Her father’s response to the troll prophecy is to take measures to teach her how to control her “powers.” In order to protect her, so he thinks, he locks the castle gates, removes most of the staff, isolates the sisters from each other, and Elsa is kept in her room where he teaches her to conceal her powers. “Conceal, don’t feel, don’t let it show.” Teaching little girls to fear and conceal their emotions is a mistake. That’s not love. And it sets them up for failure in every relationship of any kind that they will ever have. Don’t do it, Dads.

Notice that every time Elsa demonstrates some control over her powers she is moving toward someone she loves, and every time she loses control she is moving away. Even when she finally lets her powers free, singing “Let It Go,” she’s not experiencing real freedom. She’s enslaved everyone in her kingdom under a frozen winter wasteland just so that she can finally release her powers. Isolation can feel like freedom for a moment, but the fear and loneliness remain. Only love casts out fear and love is reciprocal, not reflexive. A little girl’s emotions need to be loved, not feared, if she is to learn to love rather than fear. And only a father who has dealt with his own emotions at the cross of Christ will be able to give the love that a beautiful and dangerous little girl’s heart needs.

It’s ironic to note how many Christian reviewers responded out of their fear of relativism, when the point of the film was that love overcomes fear. As a father, I see Frozen as an opportunity to teach my daughters about their emotions and I see a cautionary virtue tale for fathers everywhere (the king also failed to teach his younger daughter to guard her heart, as she “falls in love” with the first prince she meets). However, I’m not interested in wasting the time I have with my children fussing about moral relativism, when I could be teaching them how to love… which I’m going to go do now instead of just writing a blog about it.

“Here is the world. Beautiful and terrible things will happen. Don’t be afraid.” -Frederick Buechner.

Book Review: Him We Proclaim by Dennis E. Johnson

Johnson, Dennis E. Him We Proclaim: Preaching Christ from All the Scriptures. Phillipsburg: P&R Publishing, 2007.

Introduction

Him We Proclaim is a paradigm-shifting book which presents an extended case for Christocentric preaching as an entailment of an apostolic hermeneutic. The author seeks to build his homiletical practice upon a distinctive hermeneutical theory which challenges various other perspectives. This project is accomplished by appeal to the discernible hermeneutical practices of the NT authors.

Dr. Dennis E. Johnson is a professor of practical theology at Westminster Theological Seminary in California. He is an ordained minister in the Orthodox Presbyterian Church. The concentration of his research, study, and teaching has been in the area of New Testament exegesis (particularly the interrelation of the two testaments of Scripture) for nearly two decades, but he has spent the latter portion of his career writing and teaching on the application of biblical studies to the practice of ministry within the local church and the larger culture.

Summary

Him We Proclaim is a two-part book with two valuable appendices included in the text. The first part seeks to build a hermeneutical case for what the author calls “apostolic, Christocentric preaching.” (Kindle Location 488) The case is built upon a consideration of the NT authors’ manner of reading, quoting, and applying the OT in their apostolic preaching and teaching—what emerges is a starkly Christocentric way of reading the OT canon. The second part of the book draws out and exemplifies homiletical practices from the hermeneutical principles detailed in the first section.

The first chapter highlights three ways in which a wedge has been driven between the Old and New Testaments in contemporary evangelical hermeneutics—one wedge from Enlightenment-influenced biblical criticism, the second from the literalistic hermeneutic of dispensationalism, and the third stems from religious pluralism. The author also introduces his thesis that while the theology of the apostles has been maintained their interpretive methods have been abandoned by contemporary evangelical scholarship. Finally, he discusses the breach between the academy and the church, addressing the divide between biblical scholarship and gospel proclamation. Having introduced these issues, the author seeks to reunite these estranged brothers by appeal to the hermeneutical and homiletical model of the apostles.

The second chapter seeks to set hermeneutical boundaries for the combinational approach suggested in the first chapter by considering certain priorities and polarities in preaching. This chapter lays the biblical foundation for the author’s walk through the hermeneutical spiral, from text-to-hermeneutics-to-homiletics and back again. It also “provides a sympathetic but critical hearing to rival homiletic approaches… noting both the strengths and potential weaknesses of each.” (530) The author surveys and evaluates a broad swath of evangelical homiletical practices using a taxonomy of three categories: preaching to convert, to edify, and to instruct. Everything from seeker-sensitive “felt needs” models to the homiletics of nouthetic counselors and redemptive-historical preaching models receives critical but fair analysis in this chapter. The author presents and promotes a combinational approach, using Tim Keller’s preaching as an example.

The next chapter considers the purpose of preaching by examining Paul’s theology of preaching. The purpose of Paul’s preaching (taken from Col 1) was to “present everyone mature [or ‘perfect’] in Christ,” (1108) which implies something about the identity and needs of his audience as well as the content of his gospel message. Paul also mentions the price of suffering paid by the preachers of the gospel, as well as the divine power operant within them. Drawing on Paul’s teaching in Col 1 while incorporating examples from apostolic preaching throughout the first century, Johnson presents the “four motifs—purpose, listeners, content, communication tasks—[which] are the heart of this book.” These four motifs, combined with the price, power, and responsibility of preaching, “are essential to a full-orbed understanding of apostolic preaching.” (1530)

The following chapter gives a historical survey of how this apostolic model of preaching has fared throughout the history of the church’s practice. Johnson outlines how apostolic preaching passed through stages of complication, chastening, rejection, and recovery. According to the author, this homiletical method was first “complicated” by the patristic and medieval penchant for an imaginative expansion upon the allegorical reading of the biblical text. The Reformation perspective is brought in to appropriately chasten the excesses which had already developed out of ancient exegesis, as well as to contradict the rising extremes of individualism which characterized the Radical Reformation. This individualistic reading opened the doors in many ways to the rejection of apostolic preaching by the influence of the Enlightenment upon various forms of biblical criticism. Apostolic preaching was eventually recovered in the twentieth century by Princeton theologian Geerhardus Vos and has been preserved and developed since then within certain Reformed evangelical circles.

The final chapter of the first section is apologetic in nature and considers the various challenges which this preaching paradigm commonly faces. Most of these objections reflect contemporary iterations of the various schools of thought surveyed in the prior historical chapter, such as the influence of historical criticism or misgivings about the unity of Scripture. He directly responds to the various positions of Beale, Dodd, Longenecker, Gadamer, Enns, Kaiser, and McCartney, respectively, and concludes that even the grammatical-historical method needs to be corrected by apostolic interpretive methods.

The first chapter on the practice of apostolic, Christocentric preaching marks the Epistle to the Hebrews as an epistolary sermon, evaluating it as a paradigm case for preaching while the theological foundations of apostolic preaching are discussed in the succeeding chapter. The last three chapters of the book walk through the centrality of Christ in all of Scripture, giving specific aid in how to prepare and present sermons from each testament—preaching the promises of the OT and the Promise Keeper of the NT. These chapters demonstrate that the book’s theory is solid, its apologetic is reasonable, and the theory can be practically implemented by pastors within their own congregations. This section of the book strongly resembles a homiletical how-to manual, with many valuable principles and practices explained. Seeing the application of the author’s interpretive framework applied to the diverse literary genres of specific texts of Scripture is most helpful and persuasive.

Finally, two appendices are given. The first appendix walks through the author’s model “from text to sermon,” and the second provides several exemplary sample sermons which apply the methods outlined in the book.

Critical Evaluation

In evaluating Him We Proclaim two strengths and one weakness will be surveyed and discussed, respectively. This evaluation will be followed by some brief concluding remarks which discuss the overall value of this book.

Strengths

This book will provide many readers with a paradigm shift in hermeneutics, homiletics, and the relationship between the two. Two strengths of this book are: the inclusion of condensed but significantly detailed conclusions at the end of each chapter, and the author’s concise but thorough reading of the history of biblical interpretation.

The inclusion of condensed yet significantly detailed conclusions at the end of each chapter. Each chapter in this book contained significant engagement with the biblical text, history, hermeneutics, theology, and the practice of biblical proclamation. The author is strongly suited for in-depth textual analysis as well as addressing the broad-reaching implications from the text for the theory and practice of preaching. His apostolic, Christocentric, redemptive-historical, missiologically-focused, grace-driven paradigm for interpreting and preaching the text of Scripture leads readers deeper into the text and more broadly across the theological landscape of contemporary preaching.

At the close of each of these significant and insightful chapters, the author manages to present a densely compressed outline of the chapter which still provides significant detail regarding the matters discussed in the chapters. The author has a gift for expounding upon biblical truths at length and with great benefit to the reader, then providing a brief conclusion which perfectly summarizes all of the complex issues already addressed.

The outlines in each conclusion are particularly helpful for students. This reviewer often creates similar outlines while reading books for reviews or studying for examinations, but soon discovered my own outlines to be superfluous given the author’s condensed, detailed concluding summaries.

Concise but thorough reading of the history of biblical interpretation. The fourth chapter of the book, “The Complication, Chastening, Rejection, and Recovery of Apostolic Preaching in the History of the Church,” is virtually worth the price of the book alone. In contemporary evangelical circles it is common to ignore or criticize the patristic and medieval readings of Scripture based upon caricatures and myths associated with the hyper-allegorization of those periods in the history of exegesis. Johnson does not present these reductionistic oversimplifications, but gives a sympathetic-yet-critical analysis of the history of biblical interpretation. In the use of a brilliant metaphor, he applies the term “complication” in a double entendre as a descriptor for the developments in exegesis in the church during its first millennium—complicated “in the sense of an increase in complexity of method and of meanings and, metaphorically, in the medical sense of an adverse development that threatened the health of the ‘patient.’” (1787)

Johnson recognizes the common convictions held by patristic, medieval, and Reformation exegetes regarding the divine inspiration of Scripture and the value of the entire canon as an interpretive horizon. He also notes appropriately that both “allegory and typology are subcategories of metaphor and points on a continuum.” (1854) He brings a fresh perspective to an analysis of the differences between the Alexandrian and Antiochene schools of interpretation while incorporating the Reformation perspective as a helpful chastening on the excesses which developed in medieval exegesis.

It is odd for some contemporary conservative scholars to focus so heavily upon the typological aspect of the OT while denying that the difference between allegory and typology is a matter of degree rather than kind. The author’s perspective on this subject is refreshing and a helpful corrective to certain imbalances in the larger Protestant tradition of biblical interpretation, remaining faithful to the teaching and example of the Apostles despite certain contemporary trends toward a merely literary reading of the text.

Weaknesses

Despite providing a depth of insight on the twin subjects of hermeneutics and homiletics, this book still contained certain weaknesses. One weakness of this book was its omission of any discussion of the role of ethics as derived from Scripture for the purpose of preaching.

The omission of any discussion of ethics as derived from Scripture for the purpose of preaching. Johnson presents a well-rounded, well-reasoned case for an apostolic reading and preaching of both testaments of Scripture, emphasizing Christ, redemptive history, missions, and the grace of God. The emphases appropriately reflect the canonical perspective of Scripture, but leave one glaring omission: ethics.

Many controversies have roiled in the history of the church down through to this very day regarding the relationship between law and gospel, the role of the OT law, the doctrine and various models of progressive sanctification, as well as the ethics of the NT, such as the role of the Sermon on the Mount in relation to the Pauline epistles.

Johnson advocates a redemptive-historical reading of Scripture and distinguishes it from the errors in certain dispensational approaches, but never refutes the Theonomic Reconstructionism still present within his own Orthodox Presbyterian Church. He condemns moralistic preaching, but provides little by way of an alternative method for grounding the imperatives of Scripture. He gives a brief discussion on “Preaching Christ to Effect New Creation Transformation” which contains the twin principles that “apostolic application builds exhortations on grace” and “displays the texture of renewal in the image of God,” (4727-4895) but such a brief treatment barely scratches the surface of the ethical questions mentioned above. Such a weighty and controversial subject deserves further treatment in an otherwise nearly comprehensive work.

Apostolic preaching must not only extol the grace of the gospel, but also must clearly explicate the nature of the ethical freedom found in Christ. While the author has given an excellent treatment of the subjects addressed, leaving the question of ethics largely untouched is a significant lacuna in a text on preaching the whole counsel of God.

Conclusion

Him We Proclaim is a well-argued, thorough analysis, apologetic, and exposition of a fully biblical school of interpretation which provides greater insight and clarity to the nature and the task of biblical exposition. The book is historically informed, exegetically-grounded, reasonable, and any interlocutor (from whatever perspective) will have a weighty task in seeking to refute Johnson’s strong case for apostolic hermeneutics and homiletics. God willing, this book will be widely read among the preachers of God’s Word to the benefit of His people.

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